The United States Supreme Court has held that the retroactive application of withdrawal liability provisions of the Multiemployer Pension Plan Amendments Act of 1980 is constitutional and that the appropriate standard of review for such economic legislation when challenged as violative of due process is the minimum rationality test of Usery v. Turner Elkhorn Mining Co.
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corp. v. R.A. Gray & Co., 104 S. Ct. 2709 (1984).
Joseph R. Bielawa,
Constitutional Law - Due Process - Standard of Review for Economic Legislation - Retractive Application,
Duq. L. Rev.
Available at: https://dsc.duq.edu/dlr/vol23/iss4/18