The United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit held that the "true doubt rule" was invalid because it allowed claimants to prevail without meeting the required burden of persuasion.
Greenwich Collieries v. Director, Office of Workers' Compensation Programs, 990 F.2d 730 (3d Cir. 1993).
Workers' Compensation - Black Lung Benefits Act - True Doubt Rule,
Duq. L. Rev.
Available at: https://dsc.duq.edu/dlr/vol32/iss2/10