Duquesne Law Review


Michael L. Bell


The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania held that a statute allowing children to testify outside the physical presence of a defendant by means of videotape or closed circuit television violates the defendant's constitutional right to confront witnesses face-to-face. The court further held that Article I, section 9 of the Pennsylvania Constitution requires a face-to-face confrontation between a defendant and a witness, and allows exceptions only when the defendant has previously had the opportunity to physically confront and cross-examine the witness.

Commonwealth v. Louden, 638 A.2d 953 (Pa. 1994).

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