The United States Supreme Court held that drug urinalysis conducted on student athletes is constitutional despite a lack of individualized suspicion. The Court further held that a search, although not contemplated by the Framers of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, may be reasonable if on balance the governmental interest it serves outweighs the legitimate privacy interests of its subjects.
Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton, 115 S. Ct. 2386 (1995).
Cornelius J. O'Brien,
Constitutional Law - Fourth Amendment - Warrant and Probable Cause Requirements,
Duq. L. Rev.
Available at: https://dsc.duq.edu/dlr/vol34/iss4/15