The United States Supreme Court held that a North Carolina congressional districting plan did not violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment because race was not the predominant factor motivating the state legislature's districting decision.
Easley v. Cromartie, 532 U.S. 234 (2001)
Robert F. Kravetz,
Where Race and Political Behavior Highly Correlate within a Congressional District, It Is Unlikely That the District Will Be Held to Be an Unconstitutional Racial Gerrymander: Easley v. Cromartie,
Duq. L. Rev.
Available at: https://dsc.duq.edu/dlr/vol40/iss3/7