Agreements between unions and employers in the construction industry often contain clauses designed to limit the subcontracting of work to be done at the construction site; such clauses may either be primary or secondary in nature." The scope of the contractual limitations which a union may impose upon the neutral, secondary employer's right to subcontract work to a primary employer has been a constant source of litigation. In addition, much litigation has involved the question of the tactics which a union may employ in order to obtain and enforce subcontracting clauses.
Daniel W. Cooper,
The Development of Judicial Relief Available to Unions for Employer Violations of Subcontracting Clauses in the Construction Industry,
Duq. L. Rev.
Available at: https://dsc.duq.edu/dlr/vol7/iss3/7