United States District Court for the Northern District of California has held that a newspaper reporter called before a grand jury would not be required to reveal confidential associations, sources, or information that impinge upon the effective exercise of his First Amendment right to gather news for dissemination until such time as a compelling and overriding national interest which cannot be alternatively served has been established to the satisfaction of the court.
Application of Caldwell, 311 F. Supp. 358 (N.D. Cal. 1970).
Robert T. Barletta,
Constitutional Law - Freedom of the Press - First Amendment Right of a Newsman Not to Reveal Confidential Information,
Duq. L. Rev.
Available at: https://dsc.duq.edu/dlr/vol9/iss3/13