Defense Date


Graduation Date



Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



School Psychology


School of Education

Committee Chair

Tammy Hughes

Committee Member

Launcelot Brown

Committee Member

Laura Crothers


Adolescent, Bullying, Females, Minority, Relational aggression, Social aggression


In this study, the researcher sought to examine the differences in relational and social aggression for a non-Caucasian adolescent at-risk population across three different groups. Specifically, the study seeks to determine if the Goodwill Girls Curriculum will decrease covert bullying behaviors (i.e., relational and social aggression) in youth who have been removed from their home school districts due to aggressive behaviors including acts of bullying. A secondary aim of this study will be identify the effects of the Goodwill Girls Curriculum on increasing conflict resolution skills within the sample.

The Goodwill Girls curriculum is designed to be implemented alongside a school-wide prevention program. This paper will elaborate upon the history, development, and recent research of relational aggression, social aggression and conflict resolution. A pretest-posttest posttest only control group design independent samples and paired samples design will be used to answer the first research question for Group A: O1 x O2 and Group B: O3. As a result of Group C being different and adding a second post-test measure, a RMANOVA will be used to answer question one. Group C is utilizing a different method than Group A and B because this group is being measured across three different time points. In regard to the second research question, a pre/post/post test quasi-experimental repeated measures ANOVA design will be used within this study; Group C: O1 x O2 ...O3.

The results indicated the GWG curriculum did not significantly produce a decrease in relational aggression or social aggression. Yet, descriptive statistics demonstrated differences in the means showing some improvement. Lack of significance may have been due to the small sample size of this study. However, this research supported Crothers and colleagues (2009) research that relation aggression and social aggression is two separate constructs. Similar results were found with conflict participant's display of conflict resolution skills. The conclusions will expand the limited research in this area by describing the characteristics and needs of these at-risk non-Caucasian female adolescents.