Defense Date


Graduation Date

Spring 2012


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



Instructional Technology (EdDIT)


School of Education

Committee Chair

David D. Carbonara

Committee Member

Debra Scigliano

Committee Member

Debra Piecka


Barriers, Collective efficacy, Human agency, Mixed method, Self-efficacy, Technology


This exploratory mixed method study builds upon previous research to investigate the influence of teacher self- and collective efficacy on technology use in the classroom. This population was purposefully sampled to examine first- and second order technology barriers, instructional strategies, and human influences on technology. The quantitative finding was supported by qualitative analysis of the teacher interviews and led to the conclusion that even thought there were strong teacher tendencies towards a belief in using technology actual practice demonstrated a lack of productivity or transference of that belief into classroom practice. A high self- and collective efficacy had no effect on technology use in the classroom and a belief in technology did not lead to the use of technology.

The study explored three research questions: 1) what is the effect of teacher self-efficacy on technology use in the classroom, 2) what is the effect of collective efficacy on technology use in the classroom, and 3) what is the relationship among teacher self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and barriers that inhibit technology use in a K-12 classroom setting? Thirty-five teachers in a New Jersey K-8 school district volunteered to take a 36-question survey. Three teachers were interviewed to corroborate the survey data.

This study is unique in the combined analysis of self- and collective efficacy and technology. It raises several questions for future study. Teacher responses overwhelmingly identified first order or extrinsic barriers as impediments to technology. These included poor technical support, access, time issues, and a lack of vision and training. These barriers are decades old and have been acknowledged for as long as technology has been in the classroom. Why, despite thirty years of technology in education, do the same barriers that existed in the very beginning continue to be strong deterrents of technology use?

Teachers identified administrators as the least influential on teacher practices. If this is so, how can there be such a high sense of collective efficacy? How much influence does the collective agency have on classroom teacher behavior? Specifically, at what point in a teacher's decision-making does the collective agency over-ride personal beliefs and what are the characteristics that contribute to this conflict and possible submissive behavior?

Finally, are we seeking answers to the wrong questions? Is it possible that teachers and educational systems are not able to modify intrinsic and standard operating practices to utilize technology successfully?