Md Anik Alam

Defense Date


Graduation Date

Spring 5-11-2018


One-year Embargo

Submission Type


Degree Name





School of Pharmacy

Committee Chair

Carl A Anderson

Committee Member

James K Drennen III

Committee Member

Peter L.D. Wildfong

Committee Member

Ira S Buckner

Committee Member

Dongsheng Bu


Calibration, Chemometrics, Near Infrared, Pharmaceutics, Quantitative Analysis, Spectroscopy, Multivariate Analysis


Designing a calibration set is the first step in developing a spectroscopic calibration method for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical tablets. This step is critical because successful model development depends on the suitability of the calibration data. For spectroscopic-based methods, traditional concentration based techniques for designing calibration sets are prone to have redundant information while simultaneously lacking necessary information for a successful calibration model. The traditional method also follows the same design approach for different spectroscopic techniques and different formulations, thereby lacks the optimizing capability to be technique and formulation specific.

A method for designing a calibration set in the Near Infrared (NIR) spectral space was developed for quantitative analysis of tablets. The pure component NIR spectra of a tablet formulation were used to define the spectral space of that formulation. This method minimizes sample requirements to provide an efficient means for developing multivariate spectroscopic calibration.

Multiple comparative studies were conducted between commonly employed experimental design approaches to calibration development and the newly developed spectral space based technique. The comparisons were conducted on single API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) and multiple API formulation to quantify model drugs using NIR spectroscopy. Partial least squares (PLS) models were developed from respective calibration designs. Model performance was comprehensively assessed based on the ability to predict API concentrations in independent prediction sets. Similar prediction performance was achieved using the smaller calibration set designed in spectral space, compared to the traditionally designed large calibration sets. An improved prediction performance was observed for the spectrally designed calibration sets compared to the traditionally designed calibration sets of equal sizes. Spectral space was also used to incorporate physico-chemical information into the calibration design to provide an efficient means of developing robust calibration model. Robust calibration model is critical to ensure consistent model performance during model lifecycle. A weight coefficient based technique was developed for selecting loading vector in PLS model to aid in building robust calibration model.

It was also demonstrated that the optimal structures of calibration sets are different between NIR and Raman spectroscopy for the same tablet formulation. The optimum calibration structures are also different between two APIs for the same spectroscopic technique, indicating the criticality of the calibration design to be formulation and technique specific. This study demonstrates that a calibration set designed in spectral space provides an efficient means of developing spectroscopic multivariate calibration for tablet analysis. This study also provides opportunity to design formulation and technique specific calibration sets to optimize calibration capability.



Additional Citations

Alam, M.A., J. Drennen III, and C. Anderson, Designing a calibration set in spectral space for efficient development of an NIR method for tablet analysis. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 2017. 145: p. 230-239.