Defense Date


Graduation Date

Summer 8-11-2018


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



Instructional Technology (EdDIT)


School of Education

Committee Chair

Dr. Jason Margolis

Committee Member

Dr. Temple Lovelace

Committee Member

Dr. Rae Mancilla


Teacher Professional Development, Teacher Learning, Inservice Teacher Education, Continuous Improvement, Educational Improvement


In an ever-changing labyrinth of standards, accountability, and standardized testing, educators seek ways to improve instruction. Teachers need learning experiences that help them navigate an environment in which a growing list of student performance standards and standardized tests determine their success in teacher evaluations (Crawford, 2015; Terehoff, 2002). In this same pursuit, many administrators are challenged in their efforts to provide meaningful professional development to support teachers (Terehoff, 2002).

The goal of this study is to gain insight into which TPD delivery types and which levels of student presence create the most meaningful and applicable learning for educators and to provide insight and guidance to administrators and TPD planners who are seeking ways to provide quality TPD.

The study data was gathered through qualitative methods, including participant observation, surveys, interviews, and focus groups. The data was exlored through the SPLT model. The major findings of the study suggest that higher model levels—which included student physical presence—led to an increased application of teacher-learning in the classroom and an increased confidence in attempting to apply newly learned techniques and tools. Teachers also suggested that these in-classroom session were more valuable when a pre- or post-discussion accompanied the session. The results demonstrated that learning at all model levels had value for different intended learning purposes. They also suggested that the TPD learning could be more effective when lower model level sessions are followed up with higher-level SPLT model sessions that occur in the classroom during instructional time with students physically present.