Defense Date


Graduation Date

Fall 12-21-2018


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



School Psychology


School of Education

Committee Chair

Laura M. Crothers

Committee Member

Ara J. Schmitt

Committee Member

Launcelot I. Brown

Committee Member

Courtney L. McLaughlin


Aggression, Bullying, Cyberbullying, Indirect Bullying, Online aggression


Cyberbullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has only begun to be significantly investigated within the last decade. To date, researchers have failed to develop a uniform definition or determine appropriate terminology. These deficits have inhibited a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon. Although a comprehensive conceptualization of cyberbullying has yet to be established, the phenomenon has been recognized as a significant problem affecting our youth. Many of the existing studies are descriptive in nature and emphasize the need for more research. In an effort to drive future studies, many have postulated on the possible similarities between cyberbullying and traditional indirect bullying; however, few studies have quantitatively investigated this hypothesis. The current study was conducted in an effort to address the lack of literature surrounding this topic. The hypothesis of the current study was that measures of cyberbullying behaviors would be intercorrelated with measures of indirect bullying behaviors. Gender differences were also examined. A two-component model was extracted and delineated as cyberbullying behaviors and indirect bullying behaviors. The model was tested using CFA methodology and was found to be a good fit for the data, thus providing support for cyberbullying and indirect bullying as independent constructs. Self-reported cyberbullying and indirect bullying behaviors were similarly reported across males and females. Implications and directions for future research are also presented.