Defense Date


Graduation Date

Summer 1-1-2017


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



School Psychology


School of Education

Committee Chair

Tammy Hughes

Committee Member

Laura Crothers

Committee Member

Gibbs Kanyongo


Indirect aggression has been found to be more common among females than males and may be an unconsidered contribution to aggression shown in delinquent girls. Although there are no research studies to date that have investigated the link between relational aggression and law violations, there are some studies that have considered indirect and overt aggression in females; however, this research has been largely inconclusive. An additional obstacle for offenders is the presence of previous traumas, which has been closely linked to both overt and indirect aggression. Although both males and females in the juvenile justice system are likely to have experienced trauma, the traumas experienced by males and females as well as the symptoms related to trauma appear to be different. Additionally, trauma appears to be related to high-level forms of aggression and delinquency; however, it is unclear whether trauma is related to low level, indirect forms of aggression. Lastly, little research has been conducted in order to determine whether the severity and type of trauma and trauma symptoms is related to the severity and type of aggression displayed among juvenile offenders. Results of the present study suggest a link between trauma history and overt aggression as well as between trauma symptom severity and overt aggression in a sample of juvenile offenders. No such relationships were found for indirect forms of aggression. Results indicated relatively few gender differences in aggression, trauma history, and trauma symptom severity. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.