Defense Date


Graduation Date

Spring 5-10-2019


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



Counselor Education and Supervision (ExCES)


School of Education

Committee Chair

Jered B. Kolbert

Committee Member

Matthew Joseph

Committee Member

Laura M. Crothers


ASCA National Model, Recognized ASCA Model Program, ecological-systems, school counseling, school counselor role


The American School Counselor Association National Model was developed to unify the profession and to ensure that students receive equitable access to comprehensive, developmental, and preventive school counseling programming through the delivery of school counseling curriculum and services (ASCA: 2003, 2005, 2012). Designed to promote the well-being of all students and to close the achievement gap, the ASCA National Model mirrored the standards-based models adopted in public education. To encourage implementation, the ASCA established the Recognized ASCA Model Program (RAMP) designation to reward school counseling programs for following the Model (ASCA: 2003). Evidence supports the effectiveness of comprehensive school counseling programs, yet, as of February 2019, there are less than 500 RAMP schools nationwide. Using the McMahon and colleagues, Ecological School Counseling Model (2014) as the framework, I used archival data to explore micro-level (school) and macro-level (cultural/environmental) barriers to RAMP attainment. Participants included a subset (N = 349) of the original study’s national sample (N =1,729) of practicing school counselors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore what ecological-systems variables predicted the likelihood of achieving RAMP status. Regression results suggested that five variables related to the community setting (urban, suburban, rural), lack of other stakeholder support, and administrative support were reasonably accurate in predicting the RAMP status of a school. The results have implications for future research, advocacy, and professional development in school counseling.