Defense Date


Graduation Date

Summer 1-1-2017


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



Instructional Technology (EdDIT)


School of Education

Committee Chair

Misook Heo

Committee Member

Gibbs Kanyongo

Committee Member

Catherine Luke


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between technology and engineering instruction and technology and engineering literacy in grades K-8. The factors identified and used for the purpose of this study were gender, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and important modes of technology and engineering instruction. These factors were evaluated to determine their relationship to student achievement scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2014 Technology and Engineering Literacy (TEL) assessment. Eight important modes of technology and engineering instruction were identified including: (1) choices people make that affect the environment, (2) inventions changing the way people live, (3) people working together to solve community/world problems, (4) figuring out why something is not working, (5) using different tools to see which is best, (6) building or testing models to check solutions, (7) crediting others for their ideas, and (8) judging the reliability of sources. These eight modes were analyzed in terms of exposure frequency to determine which level of exposure related to the highest level of technology and engineering literacy achievement. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between independent variables and achievement on the NAEP TEL assessment. The study findings provided evidence to suggest that demographic predictors such as gender, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity have a significant relationship on student achievement in technology and engineering literacy. Additionally, evidence suggests that the more frequently students are exposed to technology and engineering modes of instruction, the higher their technology and engineering literacy achievement will be.

Limitations of the study exist due to the use of an NAEP assessment and data. US leaders, policy makers, and educators, however, can benefit from this research when determining how to best allocate funding and resources as well as developing and extending their STEM programs within schools. Additional research in this area is recommended to determine how factors can relate to technology and engineering literacy at various grade levels and across time.