Defense Date


Graduation Date

Summer 2020


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



Interdisciplinary Doctoral Program for Education Leaders (IDPEL)


School of Education

Committee Chair

Gibbs Y. Kanyongo

Committee Member

Lisa López Levers

Committee Member

Amy M. Olson



Gloria Agumagu

Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Mentor: Gibbs Kanyongo, Ph.D.

Reading is one of the most important fundamental skills for academic success, yet the teaching of reading is very complex. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of pull-out reading interventions for struggling readers in grades K-8. The objective was to determine if there would be statistically significant mean differences between participants’ performance in reading following interventions. In a sample of immigrant “at-risk” students, n = 253 drawn from Catholic schools in the District of Columbia, dependent sample t tests revealed significant effects of pull-out interventions. On average, pull-out interventions improved participants’ performance in reading and comprehension at middle of the year assessment (M = 44.087, SE = 1.191) more than their performance at the beginning of the year (M = 35.024, SE: 1.153), t (252) = -10.654, p < .001, r = .56. Participants also performed significantly better at the end of the year (M = 52.676, SE = 1.189) than they did at the middle of the year assessment (M = 44.087, SE = 1.191), t (252) = - 17.839, p < .001, r = .75. Analyses indicated the effectiveness of the pull-out interventions as a means of reducing participants’ deficiencies in reading and comprehension. The large sizes of the effect revealed the practical usefulness of pull-out interventions in addressing reading and comprehension difficulties among struggling readers. Findings have implications for addressing reading and comprehension needs of students especially those of immigrant and low socioeconomic backgrounds. They have implications for teaching and educational leadership and administration.