Defense Date


Graduation Date

Fall 12-18-2020


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



School of Education

Committee Chair

Connie M. Moss

Committee Member

Amy M. Olson

Committee Member

Joseph DeCrosta


Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ultrasound, Ultrasound Machines, Riyadh City, Saudi Red Crescent Authority, National Guard Hospital, Paramedics, EMTs, Emergency Physicians, Trauma Patients


This exploratory study was designed to illuminate both the obstacles and the opportunities inherent in the current medical emergency systems within the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in relation to the possible inclusion of ultrasound machines to assist both Saudi Red Crescent Authority professionals and emergency physicians in the hospital. The research explored the issue of implementing the ultrasound from the perspective of multiple institutions: The Saudi Red Crescent Authority and the National Guard Hospital. The research explored multiple healthcare professionals within both organizations including paramedics, EMTs, emergency doctors, and Saudi Red Crescent station administrators.

The purpose of this qualitative method study was focused on exploring the possibility to implement the ultrasound device in the ambulance by looking at the potential barriers that the Saudi Red Crescent might face in the implementation process and putting forth an action plan to overcome these barriers.

The study was guided by the following research question: What do relevant stakeholders perceive as barriers to the potential introduction and effective use of prehospital ultrasound in the Saudi Red Crescent Authority? Twenty-four paramedics and EMTs as well as four-station administrators from four different Saudi Red Crescent stations in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were included in the study. The participants also included two emergency doctors within the National Guard Hospital. Paramedics and EMTs participants completed a survey via the survey monkey platform. In addition, the four-station administrators and the two emergency doctors were interviewed in person by the researcher.

The researcher used a general interpretive process of close reading to develop themes from the qualitative data. The thematic coding revealed that the majority of the participants across all stakeholders agreed that cost, education, and training were considered to be the main barriers to implementing the ultrasound in the Saudi Red Crescent Authority. The study concludes with an educational action plan based both on the findings and the application of the theoretical framework.