Defense Date


Graduation Date

Fall 12-16-2022


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



School Psychology


School of Education

Committee Chair

Elizabeth McCallum

Committee Member

Kara E. McGoey

Committee Member

Ara J. Schmitt


academic intervention, math fact, math facts fluency, COVID-19, remote, single subject, VTPI, TPI, DCPM


The knowledge of math fact fluency skills is crucial for children to develop both related and subsequent necessary math skills. Students require fluency in basic math facts in order to successfully understand and perform more complicated math problems. Research has shown that students demonstrating math skill deficits are likely to have limited cognitive capacity to devote to higher math tasks, and also suffer from math-related anxiety, a lack of engagement, and limited vocational and career opportunities (Delli Sante et al., 2001; Gersten & Chard, 1999; Parkhurst et al., 2010; Poncy et al., 2007; Riconscente, 2013). During the COVID-19 pandemic, all U.S. public schools, approximately 124,000 schools, shut down their buildings in some capacity by March 26th, 2020 (Ballotpedia, 2020). The majority of these schools continue to provide remote-learning instruction to students. Examining the effects of time spent on learning, academic losses over summer vacation, absenteeism, and home-schooling outcomes, students’ academic progress is jeopardized (Garcia & Weiss, 2020). However, empirically-based research for delivery of math fact fluency interventions remotely is narrow provided the lack of previous need on such a massive scale. With the unknown timeline of when educational practices will resume in person, and the need for individualized student intervention, it is important to demonstrate the effectiveness of established math fact fluency interventions in a remote setting. Using an alternating treatments design, the current study compared the effectiveness of an adapted remote-delivery version of Taped Problems Intervention (VTPI) with the traditional methodology of TPI, provided in a virtual environment. Both interventions were delivered via Zoom video conference. Effectiveness was measured by graphing the participants’ DCPM and calculating percentage of nonoverlapping data between the two intervention conditions. Participants were assessed with 2-minute math fact assessment probes following the delivery of each intervention. After the intervention phase was complete, participants completed acceptability questionnaires for both VTPI and TPI conditions. Results indicated multiplication fact fluency gains for all participants, regardless of baseline performance level. The VTPI procedures yielded greater DCPM gains than traditional TPI procedures delivered remotely for four of the five participants. The TPI procedures increased DCPM, but to a lesser degree. Of the four participants for whom VPTI led to greater DCPM scores, PND ranged from 60% to 100%. Follow-up phase data showed that VTPI was more effective in maintaining or leading to continued gains in the maintenance phase than was TPI. Generalization effects were revealed across both intervention conditions as well as the control condition, but results were inconclusive in distinguishing which intervention led to more pronounced generalization effects. Results indicated that participants endorsed higher acceptability ratings for VTPI procedures compared to TPI procedures. Discussion focused on implications for providing academic interventions in virtual learning environments, the importance of direct instruction of multiplication fact fluency, as well as future considerations for researchers.