Defense Date


Graduation Date

Fall 12-16-2022


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



Counselor Education and Supervision (ExCES)


School of Education

Committee Chair

Matthew Joseph

Committee Member

Sandra Quiñones

Committee Member

Joanne Cohen

Committee Member

Kathryn Linich


psychological safety, Latinx counselors-in-training (CITs), interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA), Latino Critical Theory (LatCrit), Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) master’s degree programs


An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used in the current study to examine how Latinx counselors-in-training (CITs) define and experience psychological safety in their classroom environments while enrolled in CACREP-accredited master’s degree programs in the United States. In the present study, IPA was employed to make sense of the participants’ detailed narratives and discover how Latinx CITs interpreted and made meaning of their experiences with psychological safety in classroom environments. Serving as the theoretical framework, Latino Critical Theory was used to weave together and validate the cultural components of Latinx CITs’ accounts as they orchestrated themselves through their CACREP-accredited master’s program. Eight participants engaged in semi-structured interviews consisting of Edmondson’s (1999) 7-item survey questions and six additional items supported by existing literature. Findings from the five superordinate and nine subordinate themes illustrated how Latinx CITs defined and experienced psychological safety in their classroom spaces. The implications of the current study can pave the way for CACREP-accredited master’s programs and counselor educators to individualize, adapt, and assess classroom policies, pedagogical approaches, curricula construction, and the production standards and norms at CACREP-accredited institutions. Additionally, implications on the contribution of psychological safety to potentially improve the experiences of Latinx CITs enrolled in CACREP-accredited institutions were acknowledged. The results of the present study facilitate the opportunity to bring the representation and validation of Latinx CITs’ narratives in future research.