Defense Date


Graduation Date

Spring 5-13-2022


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



Professional Doctorate in Educational Leadership (ProDEL)


School of Education

Committee Chair

Connie M. Moss

Committee Member

Amy Olson

Committee Member

Deborah Scigliano


Learning Target Theory of Action, Formative Assessment, COVID-19, Self-Regulation, Middle School, Teacher Self-Efficacy, Feedback, Pedagogy of Poverty, Western Pennsylvania


This qualitative study was guided by the following research questions: What instructional challenges did teachers face related to designing and delivering lessons remotely during COVID-19? How did those challenges impact teacher perceptions of self-efficacy for providing meaningful lessons for their students? What is the utility of a learning target theory of action for addressing teachers instructional practice challenges and perceptions of self-efficacy?

Six participants were selected from a convenience sample and asked to complete a survey with ten open-ended prompts. Their responses were analyzed by individual participant and also across participants through close reading strategies. The analyses revealed six common challenges and seven themes within their responses. The six challenges were analyzed to reveal negative impacts on participant self-efficacy. Those challenges and impacts were further analyzed to test the utility of A Learning Target Theory of Action for aiding educators and educational leaders in overcoming teacher perceived instructional challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic and that have promise for addressing instructional challenges in other teaching environments.