Defense Date


Graduation Date

Summer 8-5-2023


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



School Psychology


School of Education

Committee Chair

Laura M. Crothers

Committee Member

Ara J. Schmitt

Committee Member

Jered B Kolbert

Committee Member

James B. Schreiber


indirect aggression, confirmatory factor analysis, victimization, bullying, psychometrics


The study of indirect bullying behaviors, relational aggression and social aggression, has been of theoretical importance and interest to researchers and psychologists within the last few decades. In this investigation, using a convenience sample of 451 late adolescents attending a private university in the mid-Atlantic U.S., I examined the factor structure of two measures of indirect bullying, the Young Adult Social Behavior Scale – Victim (YASB-V) and the Young Adult Social Behavior Scale – Perpetrator (YASB-P). Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), I found that the YASB-V comprised a four-factor model, differing from the model that had been identified in the YASB-P in previous studies. Furthermore, using CFA, the factor structure of the YASB-P was re-established akin to what has been described in prior research, although with a poor fit of the data, suggesting a better fit with a two-factor model. I also examined whether there were gender differences in the self-reporting of the indirect victimization on the YASB-V, and I did not find meaningful differences. Finally, as researchers have speculated about a relationship between the social information processing model (SIP) and the perpetration of indirect bullying, I investigated whether the factor structure of the YASB-P was associated with the four Response Decisions (Assertiveness, Passiveness, Overt Aggression, and Relational Aggression) of SIP as measured by the Scenes for Social Information Processing Assessment (SSIPA). Each factor of the YASB-P was allowed to covary with the four response decisions. The interpersonal maturity factor of the YASB-P was meaningfully related to the four response decisions on the SSIPA, the social aggression factor was meaningfully related to the overt and relational aggression response decisions, while the relationally aggressive factor had no meaningful relations. This research is tied to the extant literature, and recommendations for future research is provided.