Defense Date


Graduation Date

Summer 8-13-2022


One-year Embargo

Submission Type


Degree Name



Counseling, Psychology, & Special Education


School of Education

Committee Chair

Elizabeth McCallum

Committee Member

Ara J. Schmitt

Committee Member

Susan Rattan


Writing fluency, writing intervention, remote instruction, performance feedback writing intervention, virtual learning, students with disabilities


The current study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic after the American Psychological Association (APA) called for modified research practices to ensure the safety of students and families. The evidence-based writing fluency intervention known as the Performance Feedback (PF) Intervention was implemented via a fully remote platform. A single-subject multiple-baseline across participants design was utilized to evaluate the effects of the adapted intervention on the writing skills of three elementary-aged students with disabilities while also measuring maintenance of those skills two weeks following the intervention. Additionally, researchers measured the social acceptability of the virtual PF intervention by the students. Visual analysis of results indicated writing fluency gains, measured by total words written (TWW), were made and maintained across all participants, regardless of baseline performance. Visual analysis of writing quality, measured by correct writing sequences (CWS), indicated growth occurred and was maintained in only two participants. To further evaluate intervention effects, researchers calculated two effect sizes (WC-SMD and NAP) which revealed moderate to large treatment effects, corroborating visual analyses. Discussion focuses on implications for providing the PF intervention to students with disabilities, implications for providing the PF intervention in a virtual environment, as well as potential future direction for research.