Defense Date


Graduation Date

Fall 2009


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



Counselor Education and Supervision (ExCES)


School of Education

Committee Chair

Jocelyn Gregoire

Committee Member

Joseph Maola

Committee Member

Maura Krushinski


Counseling, Supervision, Supervisor, Counselor Education, Supervision Effectiveness, Counselor Trainee


Supervision during practicum and internship is crucial to the continued professional development and growth of the novice counselor. As counselor trainees are immersed in their field placement sites, they rely on their field site supervisors for guidance and continued training as aspiring counselors. It is imperative that a positive interpersonal supervisory relationship sets the foundation for successful supervision and training. Among the many personality variables that influence the interpersonal relationship and dynamics of supervision, cognitive style has been scarce in the counselor education and supervision literature. In addition to cognitive style, the supervisor's supervisory style influences the interpersonal supervisory relationship. Supervisory style includes the method from which a supervisor approaches the supervision relationship and can include an attractive (e.g. friendly, supportive, open, positive) and interpersonally sensitive (e.g. intuitive, reflective, therapeutic) style. Using a quantitative design, this research study investigated the influence of field site supervisors' supervisory styles and master's level counselor trainees' cognitive styles on perceived supervisory effectiveness. Specifically, this study attempted to describe perceived supervision effectiveness for an attractive or interpersonally sensitive supervisory style among counselor trainees who identified with a visualizer cognitive style or verbalizer cognitive style. The Supervisory Styles Inventory (SSI), the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ), and the Supervision Questionnaire (SQ) were utilized to describe style differences among supervisors and counselor trainees and overall effectiveness of supervision. A significant finding revealed that visualizers were more satisfied with supervision when they were paired with an attractive supervisory style versus an interpersonally sensitive supervisory style. Conversely, no significant difference was found in supervisory effectiveness among verbalizers who were paired with attractive or interpersonally sensitive supervisory styles. The results illustrate that matching visualizers with attractive supervisory styles enhances effective supervision. The intention of this study was to add to the limited literature in counselor education and supervision regarding cognitive styles, supervisory styles, and effectiveness of supervision as well as to enlighten supervisors about individualities that influence the professional practice of clinical supervision.