School of Education
motor development, cognitive development, language development, prenatal alcohol exposure
Despite the social stigma and attempts over the years to increase public awareness of the risks of drinking during pregnancy, there has been little change in women's prenatal drinking patterns (Bhuvaneswar, Change, Epstein, & Stern, 2007; Ernhart, Morrow-Tlucak, Sokol, & Martier, 1988). In the literature it is unclear to what extent alcohol exposure in utero has on motor, cognitive, and language development. Although, due to the plasticity of the immature nervous system, long-term effects of early exposure to negative teratogens (alcohol exposure in utero) need to be researched to determine if a child's development can be ameliorated by positive parenting practices (Paone & Alperen, 1998). This study aims to investigate the association between parenting styles and child temperament as it relates to motor, cognitive, and language development in children who were exposed to alcohol in utero. Results indicated that there is a significant relationship between parenting styles and child temperament in motor, cognitive, and language development. Specifically, authoritarian parenting style and easy child temperament was related to greater motor development. Authoritative parenting style and difficult child temperament was associated with greater cognitive development. Lastly, authoritarian parenting style and easy child temperament was related to greater language development in children who were two years old. These findings imply that the interaction between parenting practices and child temperament has an impact on the developmental skills in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Implications of these findings and recommendations for future research were discussed.
Hennessey, J. (2015). Interaction Effects of Parenting Styles and Child Temperament: Motor, Cognitive, and Language Development in Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol (Doctoral dissertation, Duquesne University). Retrieved from https://dsc.duq.edu/etd/647