Defense Date


Graduation Date



Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



Counselor Education and Supervision (ExCES)


School of Education

Committee Chair

Joseph F. Maola

Committee Member

Constance Fischer

Committee Member

Emma C. Mosley


Anxiety, Substance Abuse, Women


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether women who participate in a mixed gender residential substance abuse treatment facility experience more general anxiety during treatment than do women in a women-only setting and whether there a difference in the general anxiety levels of women in a women-only substance abuse treatment facility whether children are present or not. The voluntary participants of the study included 64 women who were selected from 4 residential treatment settings, 2 mixed gendered and 2 women-only, 1 with women and children. The women were asked to complete the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) that measures for an immediate presence of anxiety or a general characteristic of anxiety in persons. T-tests were used to test the four null hypotheses. The Bonferroni correction was implemented to account for the multiple t-tests. The required alpha level needed for the 0.05 level of significance with the Bonferroni correction is stated within each of the first four hypotheses. The findings concluded that there was no significant difference in the levels of anxiety for women who participated in mixed gendered residential substance abuse treatment than do women in a women-only treatment setting. The results further indicated that there was no significant difference in levels of anxiety for women without the presence of children than women whose children were present. Literature revealed codependency is an issue with women, whether or not being codependent and its potential impact on anxiety levels in women has a factor in the results of this study are inconclusive. Further research is considered necessary to explore the extent of these results as well as other factors. The implications are to continue to research the therapeutic value of women in treatment in the presence of men or not in the presence of men. Treatment may be of greater value for women in an environment that supports flexibility in their living arrangement; being able to move from mixed to single and back. The need for future research is indicated by the various limitations that included size and number of agencies included in the study. The study was based on the therapeutic community model and may need to be expanded to include other treatment modalities. The study didn't focus on the influence of culture and its impact on women's anxiety, nor did it consider the significance of establishing a rapport with the women in treatment.