Defense Date


Graduation Date

Spring 2013


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name





McAnulty College and Graduate School of Liberal Arts

Committee Chair

Jim Bailey

Committee Member

Anna Scheid

Committee Member

Daniel Scheid


Arrupe, Catholic social teaching, Jesuit, Solidarity


Fr. Pedro Arrupe, S.J. was elected the 28th superior general of the Society of Jesus in 1965 and served in that role until 1983. As superior general, Arrupe sought to shape the Jesuits in the spirit of the vision of Vatican II, as well as the original charism of the founder of the Jesuit, St. Ignatius. The questions this dissertation seeks to answer is how Fr. Pedro Arrupe understood solidarity in light of his own life and theological perspectives and then how his view continues to shape Jesuit education today.

The first chapter examines solidarity as an element of Catholic social teaching, which sets the historical and theological context for the rest of the dissertation. It briefly looks at the historical development of solidarity within papal encyclicals, as well as within selected contextual theologies.

The second chapter is the heart of the dissertation, which looks at Arrupe's contribution to solidarity through three lenses: solidarity with those suffering, solidarity through inculturation and solidarity created by the Eucharist. Drawing from historical, sociological and theological sources, Arrupe's vision of solidarity is strongly influenced by his twenty-seven years in Japan and his dedication to Ignatian spirituality. The chapter also puts Arrupe's work in dialogue with other theologians wrestling with similar issues in order to demonstrate how Arrupe adds to their analysis.

The third and fourth chapters examine the way Arrupe's ideas have influenced those who came after him. Chapter three explores the superior generals since Arrupe, Fr. Kolvenbach and Fr. Nicholas, and how they are extended Arrupe's ideas of solidarity towards Jesuit education and interreligious dialogue. The third chapter also looks at two other Jesuits, Fr. Howard Gray and Fr. Greg Boyle, each applying solidarity to Jesuit education and Jesuit social justice apostolates. The fourth chapter is a case study based on my experiences working with immersion groups at John Carroll University and the way solidarity is taught through these experiences. Specifically, the focus is on two experiences going to Immokalee, Florida in 2011 and 2013 and the positive and negative elements of immersion programs in developing solidarity in Jesuit educated university students.