Striving towards sustainable development: how environmental degradation and energy efficiency interact with health expenditures in SAARC countries



Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Publication Title

Environmental Science and Pollution Research




Energy efficiency, Energy intensity, Environmental degradation, Health expenditures, SAARC countries, Sustainable development


The previous studies focused on environmental issues, identifying their root causes, urging prompt action to reduce environmental degradation. In this context, the current article extends the literature by incorporating the ecological impacts on the health sector and the role of sustainable development. The present study adds to the body of knowledge by examining the relationship between CO2 emissions, sustainable development, energy efficiency, energy intensity, and health expenditures for SAARC countries from 2000 to 2020. Fully modified OLS (FMOLS) and dynamic OLS (DOLS) are used and diagnostic tests to check the association between the variables. The empirical analysis validated the long-run impact of the examined factors on health expenditures. The results show that energy efficiency and sustainable development have a statistically significant negative effect on health expenditures, vice-versa for CO2 emission. Energy efficiency, energy intensity, and CO2 emissions have been shown to have a one-way causative relationship with health expenditures, but sustainable development and economic growth have a two-way causation relationship. The better health status of the SAARC economies necessitates the establishment of long-term development strategies, environmental sustainability, and an examination of the energy sector. This work’s conceptual and empirical advances have significant policy ramifications for this part of the globe and its efforts to improve sustainability.

Open Access

Green Final