Title

Remote Ischemic Preconditioning-Mediated Neuroprotection against Stroke is Associated with Significant Alterations in Peripheral Immune Responses

DOI

10.1111/cns.12448

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

1-1-2016

Publication Title

CNS neuroscience & therapeutics

Volume

22

Issue

1

First Page

43

Last Page

52

Keywords

Cerebral ischemia, Cytokine, Immune cells, Limb remote ischemic preconditioning

Abstract

AIMS: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) of a limb is a clinically feasible strategy to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury after stroke. However, the mechanism underlying RIPC remains elusive. METHODS: We generated a rat model of noninvasive RIPC by four repeated cycles of brief blood flow constriction (5 min) in the hindlimbs using a tourniquet. Blood was collected 1 h after preconditioning and 3 days after brain reperfusion. The impact of RIPC on immune cell and cytokine profiles prior to and after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was assessed. RESULTS: Remote ischemic preconditioning protects against focal ischemia and preserves neurological functions 3 days after stroke. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that RIPC ameliorates the post-MCAO reduction of CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells and abolishes the reduction of CD3(+)/CD161a(+) NKT cells in the blood. In addition, RIPC robustly elevates the percentage of B cells in peripheral blood, thereby reversing the reduction in the B-cell population after stroke. RIPC also markedly elevates the percentage of CD43(+)/CD172a(+) noninflammatory resident monocytes, without any impact on the percentage of CD43(-)/CD172a(+) inflammatory monocytes. Finally, RIPC induces IL-6 expression and enhances the elevation of TNF-α after stroke. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal dramatic immune changes during RIPC-afforded neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia.

Open Access

OA

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