Use of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Lower Extremity Research



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Journal Article

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Publication Title

International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy





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Lower extremity, Patient reported outcome measures, PROMs, Umbrella Review


Background A large number of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been developed for specific lower extremity orthopaedic pathologies. However, a consensus as to which PROMs are recommended for use in evaluating treatment outcomes for patients with hip, knee, ankle and/or foot pathology based on the strength of their psychometric properties is lacking. Objective To identify PROMs that are recommended in systematic reviews (SRs) for those with orthopaedic hip, knee, foot, and ankle pathologies or surgeries and identify if these PROMs are used in the literature. Study design Umbrella Review Methods PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL, SPORTDisucs and Scopus were searched for SRs through May 2022. A second search was done to count the use of PROMs in seven representative journals from January 2011 through May 2022. SRs that recommended the use of PROMs based on their psychometric properties were included in the first search. SRs or PROMs not available in the English were excluded. The second search included clinical research articles that utilized a PROM. Case reports, reviews, and basic science articles were excluded. Results Nineteen SRs recommended 20 PROMs for 15 lower extremity orthopaedic pathologies or surgeries. These results identified consistency between recommended PROMs and utilization in clinical research for only two of the 15 lower extremity pathologies or surgeries. This included the use of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score to assess outcomes (HAGOS) for those with knee osteoarthritis and groin pain, respectively. Conclusion A discrepancy was found between the PROMs that were recommended by SRs and those used to assess clinical outcomes in published research. The results of this study will help to produce more uniformity with the use of PROMs that have the most appropriate psychometric properties when the reporting treatment outcomes for those with extremity pathologies.

Open Access