Cost-Effective Full-Color 3D Dental Imaging Based on Close-Range Photogrammetry



Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Publication Title

Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland)








3D dental reconstruction, dental imaging, intraoral scanner, photogrammetry


Dental imaging plays a crucial role in clinical dental practice. Conventional 2D dental imaging serves general-purpose tasks, such as patient documentation, while high-precision 3D dental scanning is tailored for specialized procedures, such as orthodontics and implant surgeries. In this study, we aimed to develop a cost-effective 3D imaging technique that could bridge the gap between conventional dental photography and high-precision 3D dental scanning, with the goal of improving patient dental care. We developed a 3D imaging technique based on close-range photogrammetry and termed it close-range photogrammetry-based dental imaging (CPDI). We evaluated this technique on both in vitro dental models and in vivo teeth. For dental models, we conducted a parametric study to examine the effects of the depth of field and specular reflection on reconstruction quality. We showed that the optimal results were achieved with an f/5.6 lens and without a circular polarizer for reflection suppression. This configuration generated 3D scans with 57.7 ± 3.2% and 82.4 ± 2.7% of reconstructed points falling within ±0.1 mm and ±0.2 mm error margins, respectively. With such accuracy, these 3D dental models can faithfully represent dental morphology and features. During in vivo imaging, we were able to reconstruct high-quality 3D models of the anterior arch, further demonstrating its clinical relevance. The reconstructed models carry both 3D shapes and detail full-color surface textures, which positions CPDI as a versatile imaging tool in different areas of clinical dental care.

Open Access

38002392 (pubmed); PMC10669235 (pmc); 10.3390/bioengineering10111268 (doi); bioengineering10111268 (pii)