Title

Gabapentinoid Pharmacology in the Context of Emerging Misuse Liability

DOI

10.1002/jcph.1833

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

8-1-2021

Publication Title

Journal of clinical pharmacology

Volume

61 Suppl 2

First Page

S89

Last Page

S99

Keywords

abuse, gabapentin, gabapentinoids, misuse, pharmacology, pregabalin

Abstract

This article will review the epidemiology and pharmacology of gabapentinoids (gabapentin and pregabalin) relevant to their emerging misuse potential and provide guidance for clinical and regulatory management. Gabapentinoids are γ-aminobutyric acid analogues that produce their therapeutic effects by inhibiting voltage-gated calcium channels and decreasing neurotransmitter release. Recently gabapentinoid prescribing and use have increased tremendously. Although traditionally thought to possess a favorable safety profile, gabapentinoid misuse has also risen significantly. Gabapentinoid misuse generally occurs in combination with other substances, most notably opioids, and may be for purposes of eliciting euphoric effects, enhancing the effects of other substances, or self-treating conditions such as withdrawal, pain, anxiety, or insomnia. Given its faster onset, increased bioavailability and potency, and nonsaturable absorption, pregabalin's pharmacokinetics theoretically enhance its misuse liability versus gabapentin. However, gabapentin can produce similar euphoric effects, and epidemiologic studies have identified higher rates of gabapentin misuse in the United States, likely because of greater availability and less regulated prescribing. Although adverse events of gabapentinoid-only ingestion are relatively benign, a growing body of evidence indicates that gabapentinoids significantly increase opioid-related morbidity and mortality when used concomitantly. In addition, significant withdrawal effects may occur on abrupt discontinuation. As a result of these trends, several US states have begun to further regulate gabapentinoid prescribing, reclassifying it as a controlled substance or mandating reporting to local prescription drug-monitoring programs. Although increased regulation of gabapentin prescribing may be warranted, harm reduction efforts and increased patient and provider education are necessary to mitigate this concerning gabapentinoid misuse trend.

Open Access

Bronze

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