Title

Horse Y chromosome assembly displays unique evolutionary features and putative stallion fertility genes

DOI

10.1038/s41467-018-05290-6

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

12-1-2018

Publication Title

Nature Communications

Volume

9

Issue

1

Abstract

Dynamic evolutionary processes and complex structure make the Y chromosome among the most diverse and least understood regions in mammalian genomes. Here, we present an annotated assembly of the male specific region of the horse Y chromosome (eMSY), representing the first comprehensive Y assembly in odd-toed ungulates. The eMSY comprises single-copy, equine specific multi-copy, PAR transposed, and novel ampliconic sequence classes. The eMSY gene density approaches that of autosomes with the highest number of retained X–Y gametologs recorded in eutherians, in addition to novel Y-born and transposed genes. Horse, donkey and mule testis RNAseq reveals several candidate genes for stallion fertility. A novel testis-expressed XY ampliconic sequence class, ETSTY7, is shared with the parasite Parascaris genome, providing evidence for eukaryotic horizontal transfer and inter-chromosomal mobility. Our study highlights the dynamic nature of the Y and provides a reference sequence for improved understanding of equine male development and fertility.

Open Access

Gold

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