Title

GFI1-Dependent Repression of SGPP1 Increases Multiple Myeloma Cell Survival

DOI

10.3390/cancers14030772

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

2-1-2022

Publication Title

Cancers

Volume

14

Issue

3

Keywords

C-Myc, GFI1, Multiple myeloma, PP2A, S1P, SGPP1

Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable for most patients due to the emergence of drug resistant clones. Here we report a p53-independent mechanism responsible for Growth Factor Independence-1 (GFI1) support of MM cell survival by its modulation of sphingolipid metabolism to increase the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) level regardless of the p53 status. We found that expression of enzymes that control S1P biosynthesis, SphK1, dephosphorylation, and SGPP1 were differentially correlated with GFI1 levels in MM cells. We detected GFI1 occupancy on the SGGP1 gene in MM cells in a predicted enhancer region at the 5’ end of intron 1, which correlated with decreased SGGP1 expression and increased S1P levels in GFI1 overexpressing cells, regardless of their p53 status. The high S1P:Ceramide intracellular ratio in MM cells protected c-Myc protein stability in a PP2A-dependent manner. The decreased MM viability by SphK1 inhibition was dependent on the induction of autophagy in both p53WT and p53mut MM. An autophagic blockade prevented GFI1 support for viability only in p53mut MM, demonstrating that GFI1 increases MM cell survival via both p53WT inhibition and upregulation of S1P independently. Therefore, GFI1 may be a key therapeutic target for all types of MM that may significantly benefit patients that are highly resistant to current therapies.

Open Access

Gold

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