The glycerophosphocholine acyltransferase Gpc1 is part of a phosphatidylcholine (PC)-remodeling pathway that alters PC species in yeast



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Journal Article

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Journal of Biological Chemistry





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Phospholipase B-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) results in the formation of free fatty acids and glycerophosphocholine (GPC) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GPC can be reacylated by the glycerophosphocholine acyltransferase Gpc1, which produces lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and LPC can be converted to PC by the lysophospholipid acyltransferase Ale1. Here, we further characterized the regulation and function of this distinct PC deacylation/reacylation pathway in yeast. Through in vitro and in vivo experiments, we show that Gpc1 and Ale1 are the major cellular GPC and LPC acyltransferases, respectively. Importantly, we report that Gpc1 activity affects the PC species profile. Loss of Gpc1 decreased the levels of monounsaturated PC species and increased those of diunsaturated PC species, whereas Gpc1 overexpression had the opposite effects. Of note, Gpc1 loss did not significantly affect phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylserine profiles. Our results indicate that Gpc1 is involved in postsynthetic PC remodeling that produces more saturated PC species. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that GPC1 mRNA abundance is regulated coordinately with PC biosynthetic pathways. Inositol availability, which regulates several phospholipid biosynthetic genes, down-regulated GPC1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels and, as expected, decreased levels of monounsaturated PC species. Finally, loss of GPC1 decreased stationary phase viability in inositol-free medium. These results indicate that Gpc1 is part of a postsynthetic PC deacylation/reacylation remodeling pathway (PC-DRP) that alters the PC species profile, is regulated in coordination with other major lipid biosynthetic pathways, and affects yeast growth.

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