Interferon gamma: Influence on neural stem cell function in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disease
Clinical Medicine Insights: Pathology
Interferon-gamma, Neural stem cells, Neural stem/progenitor cells, Neuroinflammation, STAT1, Virus
Interferon-gamma (IFNγ), a pleiotropic cytokine, is expressed in diverse neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions. Its protective mechanisms are well documented during viral infections in the brain, where IFNγ mediates non-cytolytic viral control in infected neurons. However, IFNγ also plays both protective and pathological roles in other central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Of the many neural cells that respond to IFNγ, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), the only pluripotent cells in the developing and adult brain, are often altered during CNS insults. Recent studies highlight the complex effects of IFNγ on NSPC activity in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanisms that mediate these effects, and the eventual outcomes for the host, are still being explored. Here, we review the effects of IFNγ on NSPC activity during different pathological insults. An improved understand-ing of the role of IFNγ would provide insight into the impact of immune responses on the progression and resolution of neurodegenerative diseases.
Kulkarni, A., Ganesan, P., & O'Donnell, L. (2016). Interferon gamma: Influence on neural stem cell function in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disease. Clinical Medicine Insights: Pathology, 2016, 9-19. https://doi.org/10.4137/CPath.s40497