Title

Neurobiology of microglial action in CNS injuries: Receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms and functional roles

DOI

10.1016/j.pneurobio.2014.06.002

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

1-1-2014

Publication Title

Progress in Neurobiology

Volume

119-120

First Page

60

Last Page

84

ISSN

3010082

Keywords

Central nervous system injuries, Microglia, Receptor

Abstract

Microglia are the first line of immune defense against central nervous system (CNS) injuries and disorders. These highly plastic cells play dualistic roles in neuronal injury and recovery and are known for their ability to assume diverse phenotypes. A broad range of surface receptors are expressed on microglia and mediate microglial 'On' or 'Off' responses to signals from other host cells as well as invading microorganisms. The integrated actions of these receptors result in tightly regulated biological functions, including cell mobility, phagocytosis, the induction of acquired immunity, and trophic factor/inflammatory mediator release. Over the last few years, significant advances have been made toward deciphering the signaling mechanisms related to these receptors and their specific cellular functions. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of the surface receptors involved in microglial activation, with an emphasis on their engagement of distinct functional programs and their roles in CNS injuries. It will become evident from this review that microglial homeostasis is carefully maintained by multiple counterbalanced strategies, including, but not limited to, 'On' and 'Off' receptor signaling. Specific regulation of theses microglial receptors may be a promising therapeutic strategy against CNS injuries. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Open Access

Green Accepted

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