Effect of a Simulated Activity on Student Ability, Preparedness, and Confidence in Applying the Pharmacists' Patient Care Process to Contraceptive Prescribing



Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date


Publication Title

Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)






PPCP, birth control, contraception, hormonal contraception, pharmacist access, pharmacist prescribing, pharmacists’ patient care process


Several states now permit pharmacists to prescribe hormonal contraception. Consequently, some schools of pharmacy now incorporate activities intending to prepare students to offer this service. This study aimed to assess the impact of a simulated activity on student pharmacists' readiness for, ability to use, and confidence in applying the Pharmacists Patient Care Process along with the United States Medical Eligibility Criteria to a patient seeking contraception. Students completed a contraceptive-prescribing simulation with standardized patients. Scores were analyzed for safe and appropriate prescribing practices. Pre- and post-workshop surveys measured confidence and perceived preparedness. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze categorical variables and Likert-scale data, respectively.The mean activity score was 86% (median 90%), with significant change in student confidence of ability to complete the process ( < 0.0001). The majority of students at baseline (52.2%) and follow up (53.2%) reported needing more practice during advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) to feel prepared. There was a significant change pre/post in students who agreed that their curriculum prepared them (15% to 28.7%, = 0.0014). This study suggests that students are able to safely and appropriately prescribe contraception in a simulated activity. The activity increased student reported confidence and moved some students towards readiness for contraceptive prescribing.

Open Access