Title

Sex Differences in Hookah-Related Images Posted on Tumblr: A Content Analysis

DOI

10.1080/10810730.2015.1095814

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

3-3-2016

Publication Title

Journal of Health Communication

Volume

21

Issue

3

First Page

366

Last Page

375

ISSN

10810730

Abstract

Hookah tobacco smoking is prevalent, widespread, and associated with large amounts of toxicants. Hookah tobacco smoking may be viewed differently by males and females. For example, females have been drawn to types of tobacco that are flavored, milder, and marketed as more social and exotic. Individuals often use the growing segment of anonymous social networking sites, such as Tumblr, to learn about potentially dangerous or harmful behaviors. We used a systematic process involving stratification by time of day, day of week, and search term to gather a sample of 140 Tumblr posts related to hookah tobacco smoking. After a structured codebook development process, 2 coders independently assessed all posts in their entirety, and all disagreements were easily adjudicated. When data on poster sex and age were available, we found that 77% of posts were posted by females and 35% were posted by individuals younger than 18. The most prominent features displayed in all posts were references to or images of hookahs themselves, sexuality, socializing, alcohol, hookah smoke, and tricks performed with hookah smoke. Compared with females, males more frequently posted images of hookahs and alcohol-related images or references. This information may help guide future research in this area and the development of targeted interventions to curb this behavior.

Open Access

Green Accepted

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