Defense Date


Graduation Date

Spring 5-10-2019


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



Educational Studies (General Education)


School of Education

Committee Chair

Dr. Carol Parke

Committee Member

Dr. Connie Moss

Committee Member

Dr. David Carbonara


1:1, lesson planning, technology


Districts across the country are quickly moving toward a 1:1 student to laptop ratio. Where computer labs or carts were once the norm, many districts are now purchasing all students a laptop to start the year. This movement is occurring at a rapid pace, despite a growing body of research that shows that increased technology does not automatically lead to achievement gains. The teacher plays a vital role in student outcomes, with or without technology. In particular, the manner in which teachers plan lessons is significant to classroom outcomes. This is evident in that the Charlotte Danielson Framework for Teaching (2011), adopted by the majority of states as the rubric for teacher evaluations, recognizes planning as one of the four broad categories essential to effective teaching. Given the explosion of interest in educational technology, as well as the recognition that planning is important to good teaching, the primary goal of this research study was to determine the impact that 1:1 technology has on teacher planning. A secondary purpose of the research was to determine the barriers to improving the quantity and quality of technology lessons planned in a 1:1 environment. The theoretical frameworks used in this study are the Substitution Augmentation Modification Replacement (SAMR) model and the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. The SAMR model was used as a guide to determine whether technology was used in a way that increased the rigor of a planned lesson (Puentedura, 2014). TPACK was used as a framework to understand barriers to planning technology lessons (Koehler & Mishra, 2005).