Defense Date


Graduation Date

Spring 2013


Immediate Access

Submission Type


Degree Name



School Psychology


School of Education

Committee Chair

Jeffrey Miller

Committee Member

Hughes Tammy

Committee Member

Crothers Laura


Bullying, Forms of bullying, Student reported victimization, Survey data


Bullying is a common problem among children and adolescents in which the consequences can be severe. Bullying is associated with a variety of negative outcomes and can lead to a variety of mental and physical health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine forms of bullying behaviors that were most predictive of student-reported bullying and the frequency of student-reported bullying in response to a variety of bullying behaviors. In this study, an archival dataset was utilized. Data collected in the fall of 2012 came from 8387 6th through 12th grade students who attended 124 public middle and high schools in Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Maryland. The web-based bullying survey, designed as a component of a district-wide bullying prevention initiative, was intended to assess the prevalence, type, and social norms associated with bullying and school violence.

For the first research question, logistic regression analyses indicated that teasing and name-calling were the most frequent forms of bullying and were the two primary predictors of student-reported bullying. Social and/or relational forms of bullying were overall the most frequently reported forms of bullying. In contrast, physical or direct forms of bullying and cyberbullying were the least frequent forms of bullying reported.

For the second research question, a series of chi-square analyses indicated significant differences for all types of bullying behavior and whether or not student reported being bullied. Specifically, compared to student who did not report being bullied in the past month, those students who did report being bullied within the last month were more likely to report (a) being called names, (b) being threatened, (c) being teased or picked on, (d) being pushed or shoved, (e) having emails or messages sent to others about them, (f) having rumors or lied spread about them, (g) being ignored or left on purpose, (h) having sexual comments or gestures made toward them; and (i) having their property stolen. Based on the results of this current study, several different proposals for future research can be proposed, including (a) examination of the changes in bullying behaviors and reporting of bullying longitudinally, from elementary to high school and (b) comparisons between schools with and without bullying prevention programs in regard to type and frequency of student bullying behaviors and student reporting of bullying.