Title

Janus compounds, 5-chloro-N4-methyl-N4-aryl-9hpyrimido[4,5-b]indole-2,4-diamines, cause both microtubule depolymerizing and stabilizing effects

DOI

10.3390/molecules21121661

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Date

12-1-2016

Publication Title

Molecules

Volume

21

Issue

12

Keywords

Cancer, Colchicine site, Microtubule, Microtubule destabilizer, Microtubule stabilizer

Abstract

While evaluating a large library of compounds designed to inhibitmicrotubule polymerization, we identified four compounds that have unique effects on microtubules. These compounds cause mixed effects reminiscent of both microtubule depolymerizers and stabilizers. Immunofluorescence evaluations showed that each compound initially caused microtubule depolymerization and, surprisingly, with higher concentrations, microtubule bundles were also observed. There were subtle differences in the propensity to cause these competing effects among the compounds with a continuum of stabilizing and destabilizing effects. Tubulin polymerization experiments confirmed the differential effects and, while each of the compounds increased the initial rate of tubulin polymerization at high concentrations, total tubulin polymer was not enhanced at equilibrium, likely because of the dueling depolymerization effects. Modeling studies predict that the compounds bind to tubulin within the colchicine site and confirm that there are differences in their potential interactions that might underlie their distinct effects on microtubules. Due to their dual properties of microtubule stabilization and destabilization, we propose the name Janus for these compounds after the two-faced Roman god. The identification of synthetically tractable, small molecules that elicit microtubule stabilizing effects is a significant finding with the potential to identify new mechanisms of microtubule stabilization.

Open Access

Gold

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