Reducing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on stainless steel 316L using functionalized self-assembled monolayers
Materials Science and Engineering C
Biofilms, Gentamicin, Oligoethylene glycol, Self-assembled monolayers, Stainless steel 316L, Staphylococcus aureus
Stainless steel 316L (SS316L) is a common material used in orthopedic implants. Bacterial colonization of the surface and subsequent biofilm development can lead to refractory infection of the implant. Since the greatest risk of infection occurs perioperatively, strategies that reduce bacterial adhesion during this time are important. As a strategy to limit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on SS316L, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used to modify the SS316L surface. SAMs with long alkyl chains terminated with hydrophobic (- CH3) or hydrophilic (oligoethylene glycol) tail groups were used to form coatings and in an orthogonal approach, SAMs were used to immobilize gentamicin or vancomycin on SS316L for the first time to form an "active" antimicrobial coating to inhibit early biofilm development. Modified SS316L surfaces were characterized using surface infrared spectroscopy, contact angles, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. The ability of SAM-modified SS316L to retard biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus was functionally tested using confocal scanning laser microscopy with COMSTAT image analysis, scanning electron microscopy and colony forming unit analysis. Neither hydrophobic nor hydrophilic SAMs reduced biofilm development. However, gentamicin-linked and vancomycin-linked SAMs significantly reduced S. aureus biofilm formation for up to 24 and 48 h, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Kruszewski, K., Nistico, L., Longwell, M., Hynes, M., Maurer, J., Hall-Stoodley, L., & Gawalt, E. (2013). Reducing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on stainless steel 316L using functionalized self-assembled monolayers. Materials Science and Engineering C, 33 (4), 2059-2069. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2013.01.023